Fujian is one of the provinces on the southeast coast of the People's Republic of China. Fujian borders Zhejiang to the north, Jiangxi to the west, and Guangdong to the south. Taiwan lies to the east, across the Taiwan Strait. The name Fujian comes from the combination of Fuzhou and Jian'ou, two cities in Fujian. The name was coined during Tang Dynasty. It covers an area of over 120000 square kilometers.
Recent archaeological discoveries demonstrate that Fujian (especially the northern coastal region around Fuzhou) had entered the Neolithic Age by the middle of the 8th millennium BP (6th millennium BC). From the Keqiutou site (7450-5590 BP), an early Neolithic site in Pingtan Island located about 70 km southeast of Fuzhou, numerous tools made of stones, shells, bones, jades, and ceramics (including wheel-made-ceramics) have been unearthed, together with spinning wheels, a definitive evidence of weaving.
The province is mostly mountainous, and is traditionally described to be "Eight parts mountain, one part water, and one part farmland" .The northwest is higher in altitude, with the Wuyi Mountains forming the border between Fujian and Jiangxi. The highest point of Fujian is Huanggang Peak in the Wuyi Mountains, with an altitude of 2157 m.
Fujian has a subtropical climate, with warm winters. In January the coastal regions average around 7-10 degrees Celsius while the hills average 6-8 degrees Celsius. In summer temperatures are high, and province is threatened by typhoons coming in from the Pacific. Average annual precipitation is 1400-2000 mm.
Fujian is hilly and farmland is sparse. Rice is the main crop, supplemented by sweet potatoes and wheat. Fujian is one of the wealthier provinces of China. Xiamen was one of the first cities in China to be classified as a Special Economic Zone.
Han Chinese make up most of the population. Hakka, a Han Chinese people with its own distinct identity, live in the southwestern parts of the province. The She, scattered over mountainous regions in the north, is the largest minority ethnic group of the province. Genetic studies have suggested that a significant proportion of Han Chinese ancestry in Fujian descend (predominantly matrilineally) from pre-Sinicization aborigines.
Because of its mountainous nature and the numerous waves of migration from central China in the course of history, Fujian is one of the most linguistically diverse places in all Han Chinese areas of China. Local dialects can become unintelligible within 10 km. This is reflected in the expression that "if you drive five miles in Fujian the culture changes, and if you drive ten miles, the language does".As is true of other provinces, the official language in Fujian is Standard Mandarin, which is used for communication between people of different localities.
What to see
Mount Wuyi (Wu Yi Shan) may enlighten you with its wonderland tour. Its beautiful mountains, vigorous rocks and limpid waters are legendary. Nanputuo Temple, among the four well-known Buddhist shrines in the nation, has the longest and most prestigious history. Earth Towers of the Hakkas in Yongding area are the much fabled mountain residences in this world of make believe.
Fujian cuisine, with an emphasis on seafood, is one of the eight great traditions of Chinese cuisine. It is composed of traditions from various regions, including Fuzhou cuisine and Min Nan cuisine. Many famous teas originate from Fujian, including oolong, Wuyi Yancha, and Fuzhou jasmine tea. Fuzhou bodiless lacquerware, a famous type of lacquerware, is noted for using a body of clay and/or plaster to form its shape.