Situated in the northwest of China, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region was known in China as the Western Territory in ancient times.Its 1.66 million square kilometers represent about one-sixth of the total territory of the country, making it the largest of China's regions and provinces. Xinjiang also has the longest boundary among China's provinces and autonomous regions and shares 5,600 kilometers of frontier with Mongolia in the northeast, then Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan in the west, and then Afghanistan, Pakistan and India in the southwest.
It has an area of more than 1.66 million square kilometers, one sixth of the total size of China and larger than any other province or autonomous region.
The total population of Xinjiang is some 19,339,500.
Situated deep in the interior of Asia and not penetrated by the air currents from the oceans, the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region has conspicuous continental climate, with highly changeable temperature, great difference in temperature between day and night, abundant sunshine, intense evaporation and little precipitation. The mean annual temperature of Xinjiang is 11.7 degrees Celsius -- the hottest month, July, averaging about 25 degrees Celsius and the coldest month, January, -20 degrees Celsius in the north and -10 degrees Celsius in the south -- and a mean annual precipitation of 150 mm.
The largest ethnic group comprises some 7,497,700 Han people, accounting for 40.6 percent of the population of Xinjiang. The remaining 10,964,900 people or 59.4 percent, represent no fewer than 47 ethnic minority groups. Thirteen of the ethnic groups have lived in Xinjiang for centuries. These are the Uygur, Han, Kazak, Hui, Mongolian, Kirgiz, Tajik, Xibe, Ozbek, Manchu, Daur, Tartar and Russian peoples.
Baked Full Goat, Baked Baozi, Pellicle Baozi, Kebab, Braised Jemmy and Goat's Hoof, Youtazi (Oil Pagoda), etc.
The Uygur dances, such as the "Bowls-on-Head Dance", "Drum Dance", "Iron Ring Dance", "Puta Dance" and "Sainaim Dance". Uygur musical instruments.
Xinjiang is well known for the expanse of its area and richness of natural resources, as well for its wonderful scenic spots and enchanting spectacles of nature. Many "mosts" of China are found in Xinjiang -- the driest, hottest, and coldest places are in Xinjiang, and China's longest inland river, lowest land and greatest desert are here as well. Here the tourist can see a most spectacular and engrossing topography of the world, locally known as "Yadan". The longest inland river, The Turpan Basin is the second lowest land on the earth next to the Dead Sea in Jordon, while the Mount Qogir, 8,611 meters above sea level, is second in height only to the Mount Everest.
The specialities in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region are famous in China. Hami melons, pomegranate in Yecheng, walnut in Aksu, Lambskin in Kuqa and many others , are all famous througbout the country.
What to see
Historical and cultural tourism in Xinjiang is most attractive for its unique charm. The Silk Road, which runs across Xinjiang horizontally, is known to the whole world. Xinjiang is endowed with 236 ancient cultural sites, tombs, architectures, Buddhist caves, stone sculptures, and modern commemorative monuments of historical, artistic, and scientific value. Within the territory of Xinjiang, there are a number of ancient city ruins such as Gaochang Ancient City, City Site in State of Loulan, and the Site of Niya. The region has established 22 nature reserves.